Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2018, Page: 210-217
Current Status of Sexual Health in Korean Mothers Residing in Japan (Zainichi Mothers)
Chie Koh, Graduate School of Nursing, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan; Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
Hiroya Matsuo, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
Received: Sep. 10, 2018;       Accepted: Sep. 27, 2018;       Published: Oct. 25, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajns.20180706.12      View  147      Downloads  10
Abstract
This study aimed to clarify the influence of traditional values and gender identity on sexual health among mothers in the Korean population living in Japan (zainichi). A cross-sectional survey was completed by 117 zainichi mothers aged 20–45 years in 2017. The questionnaire assessed participants’ characteristics, views on marriage/ pregnancy/ childbirth, reproductive health, domestic violence, and housework and childrearing burdens. We also evaluated traditional value, sex role attitudes, marital satisfaction, and trust, hope, and satisfaction regarding the Japanese and zainichi communities. Most zainichi mothers were satisfied with their pregnancy (96.3%) and childbirth (98.2%) timing, but the actual number of children was below the desired number of children. Of all participants, 10.0%, 25.0%, and 33.3%, respectively, reported dissatisfaction with decision-making regarding contraception, abortion, and divorce, and most participants reported a housework burden that was “strong” (46.5%) or “very strong” (14.7%). Women’s sexual health was associated with traditional values, gender role attitudes, marital satisfaction, and living in Koreatown. Ethnic school experience, hope for marriage, hope for a boy, and pressure for a boy were significantly associated with traditional values. zainichi Korean mothers’ wishes regarding contraception, abortion, and divorce are not respected. Many do not achieve their ideal number of children, and they are generally responsible for housework and childrearing. Traditional values, gender role attitudes, and marital satisfaction influence zainichi mothers’ sexual health. Midwives and nurses should provide information and training about sexuality, and facilitate childcare support resources in the zainichi Korean community.
Keywords
Sexual Health, Cultural Characteristics, Confucianism, Gender Identity, Mothers
To cite this article
Chie Koh, Hiroya Matsuo, Current Status of Sexual Health in Korean Mothers Residing in Japan (Zainichi Mothers), American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2018, pp. 210-217. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20180706.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Statistics Japan. Statistics on registration of foreign residents. Ministry of Justice; 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 4]. Available from: https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&lid=000001196143.
[2]
Visocnik N. The Role of Religion in the Life of Zainichi Koreans in Japan. Asian Studies. 2016;4(1):229-243.
[3]
Tsubaki C, Machiura M, Saho M. The conditions of sex education, sex knowledge, traditional values, and the relations to sex behaviors among Korean college students living in Japan. Maternal Health. 2012;52(4):522–528.
[4]
Goto A, Vinh NQ, Tu VT, Phuc TH, Minh PN, Yabe J, et al. Maternal Confidence in Child Rearing: Comparing Data from Short-term Prospective Surveys Among Japanese and Vietnamese Mothers. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12(5): 613–619.
[5]
Nishigaki K, Kanamori Y, Ikeda M, Sugiyama M, Minowa H, Kamibeppu K. Changes in Mothers’ psychosocial of technology-dependent children and adolescents at home in Japan: Acknowledgement of children’s autonomy. Asian nursing research. 2016; 10: 100-105.
[6]
Inoue M, Nishikitani M, Tsurugano S. Female non-regular workers in Japan: their current status and health. Industrial Health. 2016; 54: 521–527.
[7]
Koh C, Matsuo H. Current situations and challenges concerning sexual health among unmarried couples composed of a mix of Japanese, South Korean nationals, and ethnic Koreans born in Japan (zainichi): a qualitative study. Health. 2017;9(1):14–24.
[8]
Jang SJ, Zippay A, Park R. Family leave for employed women: Interaction effects of gender discrimination and household responsibilities in South Korea. Intern Social Work. 2016;59(1):99–114.
[9]
Yoshino R. A time to trust in East Asia: a behaviormetric study on the sense of trust in East Asia Value Survey. Behavioral metrology. 2005;32(2):147–160.
[10]
Suzuki A. Construction of a short-form of the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes (SESRA-S). Jpn J Psychol. 1994:65(1):34–41.
[11]
Moroi K. Perception of equity in sharing of domestic labor. Jpn J Fam Psychol. 1996;10(1):15–30.
[12]
Joshi R, Khadilkar S, Patel M. Global trends in use of long-acting reversible and permanent methods of contraception: Seeking a balance. Intern J Gyne and Obs. 2015;131(1): 60–63.
[13]
UN, Department of Economic and Social affairs. World contraceptive patterns 2015. United Nations; 2015 [cited 2017 Oct 03]. Available from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/dataset/contraception/wcu2015.shtml.
[14]
Kojo T, Ae R, Tsuboi S, Nakamura Y, Kitamura K. Differentials in variables associated with past history of artificial abortion and current contraception by age: Results of a randomized national survey in Japan. J Obstet Gynaecol Re. 2017;43(3):516–522.
[15]
Inoue K, Kelly M, Bateson D, Rutherford A, Stewart M, Richters J. Contraceptive choices and sexual health of Japanese women living in Australia: A brief report from a qualitative study. Aust Fam Physician. 2016;45 (7):523–527.
[16]
JFPA. The 7th survey report on life and consciousness of men and women. Japan Family Planning Association; 2015 [cited 2018 Jan 4]. Available from: http://www.jfpa.or.jp/paper/main/000047.html.
[17]
Buhling KJ, Zite NB, Lotke P, Black K. Worldwide use of intrauterine contraception: a review. Contraception. 2014; 89(3):162–173.
[18]
Bateson D, Kang S, Paterson H, Singh K. A review of intrauterine contraception in the Asia-Pacific region. Contraception. 2017; 95(1):40–49.
[19]
NIPSSR. Marriage and childbirth in Japan today, The fifteenth Japanese National Fertility Survey 2015. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research; 2017 [cited 2017 Oct 03]. Available from: http://www.ipss.go.jp/ps-doukou/j/doukou15/NFS15_reportALL.pdf.
[20]
MOGEF. Women’s lives by statistics 2017. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family; 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 4]. Available from: http://www.mogef.go.kr/eng/pr/eng_pr_s101d.do?mid=eng001.
[21]
Kim H. Women’s living in statistics 2017. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family; 2017 [cited 2017 Dec 1]. Available from: http://www.mogef.go.kr/kor/skin/doc.html?fn=aa7bf854464b436093cdb31979b3af2f.hwp&rs=/rsfiles/201802/.
[22]
Cabinet Office Japan. White paper for measures against declining birthrate 2017. Cabinet Office, Government of Japan; 2017 [cited 2017 Dec 1]. Available from: http://www8.cao.go.jp/shoushi/shoushika/whitepaper/measures/w-2017/29webhonpen/html/b1_s1-1-2.html.
[23]
Kobayashi M, Kobayashi M, Okumura T, Usui E. Sharing housework between husbands and wives: how to improve marital satisfaction for working wives in Japan. IZA J Labor Policy. 2016; 5(18):1–15.
[24]
Daiwa House Industry. A survey on dual income couples’ consciousness about “housework”. Daiwa House Industry; 2017 [cited 2017 Oct 3]. Available from: http://www.daiwahouse.co.jp/column/lifestyle/dual_income/.
[25]
Andrea DB, Valeria H. Patrilineality, Son Preference, and Sex Selection in South Korea and Vietnam. Population and Development Review. 2017;43(1):1–29.
[26]
Masters NT, Morrison DM, Querna K, Casey EA, Beadnell B. Correlates of Young Men's Intention to Discuss Birth Control with Female Partners. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2017;49(1): 37–43.
Browse journals by subject